1. Ichikawa S, Morifuji M, Ohara H, Matsumoto H, Takeuchi Y, Sato K. “Hydroxyproline-containing dipeptides and tripeptides quantified at high concentration in human blood after oral administration of gelatin hydrolysate”. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Feb;61(1):52-60.
  2. Iwai K, Hasegawa T, Taguchi Y, Morimatsu F, Sato K, Nakamura Y, Higashi A, Kido Y, Nakabo Y, Ohtsuki K. “Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates”. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6531-6.
  3. Kawaguchi T1, Nanbu PN, Kurokawa M. “Distribution of prolylhydroxyproline and its metabolites after oral administration in rats”. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012; 35 (3):422-7.
  4. Oesser S., Adam M., Babel W. and Seifert J. “Oral Administration of 14C Labelled Gelatin Hydrolysate Leads to an Accumulation of Radioactivity in Cartilage of Mice (C57/BL)”. American Society for Nutritional Sciences.1999:1891-1895.
  5. Ohara, H. et al “Comparison of Quantity and Structures of Hydroxyproline-Containing Peptides in Human Blood after Oral Ingestion of Gelatin Hydrolysates from Different Sources” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 1532-1535.
  6. Roberts P. R., Burney J.D., Black K. W. and Zaloga G.P. “Effect of Chain Length on Absorption of Biological Peptides from the Gastrointestinal Tract”. Digestion. 1999; 60: 332-337.
  7. Watanabe-Kamiyama M, Shimizu M, Kamiyama S, et al. “Absorption and effectiveness of orally administered low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate in rats”. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58(2): 835-41.
  8. Yazaki, M. et al “Oral Ingestion of Collagen Hydrolysate Leads to the Transportation of Highly Concentrated Gly-Pro-Hyp and Its Hydrolyzed Form of Pro-Hyp into the Bloodstream and Skin” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65, 2315−2322.
  9. Zeijdner E.E. “Digestibility of collagen hydrolysate during passage through a dynamic gastric and small intestinal model (TIM-1) “. TNO Nutrition and food Research Report. 24 June 2002.


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  22. Llopis-Miró, R. et al “Eficacia y tolerancia de un condroprotector oral a base de ácido hialurónico y colágeno hidrolizado sobre la funcionalidad articular en individuos activos con artrosis de rodilla” Apunts Med Esport. 2012;47(173):3—8.
  23. McAlindon TE, Nuite M, Krishnan N, Ruthazer R, Price LL, Burstein D, Griffith J, Flechsenhar K. “Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: a pilot randomized controlled trial”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Apr;19(4):399-405.
  24. Mc Carthey S.M., Carpenter M. R., Barrell M.M., Morrissey D.E., Jacobson E., Kline G., et al. “The effectiviness of gelatine supplementation treatment in individuals with symptoms of mild osteoarthritis”. American Academy of Family Physicians, Annual assembly, Dallas (TX) 2000.
  25. Moskowitz, R. W. “Role of Collagen Hydrolysate in Bone and Joint Disease”. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2000; 30 (2): 87-9.
  26. Nakatani S, Mano H, Sampei C, Shimizu J, Wada M. “Chondroprotective effect of the bioactive peptide prolyl-hydroxyproline in mouse articular cartilage in vitro and in vivo”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009 Dec; 17(12):1620-7.
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  28. Oesser S., Haggenmüller D., Schulze, C.H. “Collagen hydrolysate modulates the extracellular matrix metabolism of human chondrocytes”. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006; 65 (suppl. II): 401.
  29. Ohara, H. et al “Effects of Pro-Hyp, a collagen hydrolysate-derived peptide, on hyaluronic acid synthesis using in vitro cultured synovium cells and oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates in a guinea pig model of osteoarthritis” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(10):2096-9.
  30. Ribas Fernández JL, Molinero Pérez O. “Effects of gelatine hydrolysate in the prevention of athletic injuries”. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte. 1998; 15:277-282.
  31. Seeligmüller K, Happel HK. “Can a mixture of gelatin and L-cystine stimulate proteoglycan synthesis?” [in German]. Therapiewoche. 1989;39:3153-3157.
  32. Trc T, Bohmova J. “Efficacy and tolerance of enzymatic hydrolysed collagen (EHC) vs. glucosamine sulphate (GS) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA)”. Int Orthop.2011;35:341—8.
  33. Weh L., Bramstedt B. “Gelatine: Are there any Health Potential?”. Extracta orthopaedica, 1999; 5: 15-17.
  34. Zdzieblik, D. et al “Improvement of activity-related knee joint discomfort following supplementation of specific collagen peptides” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Jun;42(6):588-595.
  35. Zuckley L., Angelopoulou, K.M. et al. “Collagen hydrolysate improves jointf unction in adults with mild symptoms of osteoarthritis of theK nee”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004; 36 (5): 153-15.


  1. Adam M., Spacek P., Hulejova H., Galianova A., Blahos J. “Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment with calcitonine and a diet rich in cartilage proteins”. Cas Lèk ces. 1996, 135: 74-8.
  2. Adam M., Eggersglüss B., Bräumer K. and Schrieber R. “Use of tasteless, Hydrolyzed Collagen and Agent containing the same”. United States Patent nº 5,948,766 (7.09.1999).
  3. Daneault, A., et al. (2017) “Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57:9, 1922-1937.
  4. De Almeida Jackix E, Cúneo F, Amaya-Farfan J, de Assunção JV, Quintaes KD. “A food supplement of hydrolyzed collagen improves compositional and biodynamic characteristics of vertebrae in ovariectomized rats.” J Med Food. 2010 Dec; 13(6):1385-90.
  5. Elam, ML. et al. “A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial” J Med Food 00 (0) 2014, 1–8
  6. Guillerminet F, Beaupied H, Fabien-Soulé V, Tomé D, Benhamou CL, Roux C, Blais A. “Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone metabolism and biomechanical parameters in ovariectomized mice: an in vitro and in vivo study”. Bone. 2010 Mar; 46(3):827-34.
  7. Guillerminet F, Fabien-Soulé V, Even PC, Tomé D, Benhamou CL, Roux C, Blais A. “Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone status and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized C3H/HeN mice”. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Jul; 23(7):1909-19.
  8. Hooshmand, S. et al. “Evidence for Bone Reversal Properties of a Calcium- Collagen Chelate, a Novel Dietary Supplement” J Food Nutr Disor 2013, 2:1.
  9. Kim HK, Kim MG, Leem KH “Osteogenic activity of collagen peptide via ERK/MAPK pathway mediated boosting of collagen synthesis and its therapeutic efficacy in osteoporotic bone by back-scattered electron imaging and microarchitecture analysis” Molecules 2013, 18, 15474-15489.
  10. Kim HK, Kim MG, Leem KH “Collagen hydrolysates increased osteogenic gene expressions via a MAPK signaling pathway in MG-63 human osteoblasts” Food Funct. 2014 Mar; 5(3): 573-8.
  11. König D., Oesser S., Scharla S., Zdzieblik D., Gollhofer A. “Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women—A Randomized Controlled Study” Nutrients 2018, 10, 97.
  12. Koyama Y., Hirota A., Mori H., et al. “Ingestion of gelatin has diferential effect on bone mineral density and body weight in protein undernutrition”. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2001; 47(1):84–6.
  13. Leem KH, Lee S, Jang A, Kim HK. “Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.” J Med Food. 2013 May; 16(5): 447-53.
  14. Liu J, Zhang B, Song S, Ma M, Si S, Wang Y, Xu B, Feng K, Wu J, Guo Y. (2014) “Bovine Collagen Peptides Compounds Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts”. PLOS ONE 9(6): e99920.
  15. Liu, J. et al “Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats”. PLOS ONE. 2015 Aug 10;10(8):e0135019.
  16. Liu J, Si S, Qin Y, Zhang B, Song S, Guo Y. “The effect of different molecular weight collagen peptides on MC3T3-E1 cells differentiation”. Biomed Mater Eng. 2015;26 Suppl 1:S2041-7.
  17. Martin-Bautista, E. et al. “A nutritional intervention study with hydrolyzed collagen in pre-pubertal Spanish children: influence on bone modelling biomarkers” J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24(3-4):147-53.
  18. Mizuno M, Kuboki Y. “Osteoblast-related gene expression of bone marrow cells during the osteoblastic differentiation induced by type I collagen”. J Biochem. 2001 Jan;129(1):133-8.
  19. Nomura, Y.; Oohashi, K., Watanabe, M. and Kasugai (2005). “Increase in bone mineral denstiy through oral administration of shark gelatine to ovariectomzied rats”. S Nutrition 21 (11-12): 1120–1126.
  20. Porfírio E, Fanaro GB (2016) “Collagen supplementation as a complementary therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis: a systematic review” Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia 19: 153-164.
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  22. Takada Y., Aoe S., Kato K., Toba Y., Yamamura J. “Medicine drink food and feed having an action of strengthening bone”. United States Patent nº 6,344,437 B1 (5.02.2002).
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  24. Wu J, Fujioka M, Sugimoto K, Mu G, Ishimi Y. “Assessment of effectiveness of oral administration of collagen peptide on bone metabolism in growing and mature rats”. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22(6):547-53.
  25. Yamada S, Nagaoka H, Terajima M, Tsuda N, Hayashi Y, Yamauchi M. “Effects of fish collagen peptides on collagen post-translational modifications and mineralization in an osteoblastic cell culture system”. Dent Mater J. 2013; 32(1):88-95.
  26. Zhang, H. et al “Preventive Efects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovaerictomized Rats” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014(4):627285 · July 2014.


a. Anti-invecchiamento

  1. Asserin J., Lati E., Shioya T., Prawitt J. (2015) “The effect of oral collagen peptide supplementation on skin moisture and the dermal collagen network: evidence from an ex vivo model and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials” J. of Cosmetic Dermatology, 0, 1–11.
  2. Beguin A. “A novel micronutrient supplement in skin aging: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study” J. Cosmet Dermatol 2005; 4(4): 277-84.
  3. Borumand M, Sibilla S. “Effects of a nutritional supplement containing collagen peptides on skin elasticity, hydration and wrinkles.” J Med Nutr Nutraceut 2015; 4:47-53.
  4. Campos, Patrícia Maia, et al., (2015) “An oral supplementation based on hydrolyzed collagen and vitamins improves skin elasticity and dermis echogenicity: a clinical placebo-controlled study”. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 142.
  5. Gimenez A, Conesa A, Benito P. “Effect of oral ingestion of Hydrolyzed Collagen on postmenopausal women skin wrinkle – A pilot study”. Octubre 2007.
  6. Koyama Y., Sakashita A., Kuwaba K., Kusubata M. “Effects of oral ingestion of collagen peptide on the skin.” Fragr J. 2006; 34 (6): 82-85.
  7. Matsuda, N., Koyama, Y-I., Hosaka, Y., Ueda, H., Watanabe, T., Araya, S., Irie, S. and Takehana, K. 2006. “Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis”. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology. 52: 211-215.
  8. Matsumoto, H., Ohara, H., Ito, K., Nakamura, Y. and Takahashi, S. 2006. “Clinical effects of fish type I collagen hydrolysate on skin properties”. ITE Letters on batteries, new Technologies and medicine, 7(4):386-390.
  9. Nishinimoto S., Hiura N. , Sato R. et al. “Effect of oral administration of gelatin and collagen peptides on the hydroxyproline content of rats’ skin”. Journal of the Japanese So. for food Science and Technology. 2002, 49 (3): 199-202.
  10. Ohara H., Ichikawa S., Matsumoto H., Akiyama M., Fujimoto N., Kobayashi T., Tarima S. “Collagen-derived dipeptide, proline-hydroxyproline, stimulates cell proliferation and hyaluronic acid synthesis in cultured human dermal fibroblasts” The Journal of Dermatology 2010; 37: 330-338.
  11. Ohara H, Ito K, Iida H, Matsumoto H. “Improvement in the moisture content of the stratum corneum following 4 weeks of collagen hydrolysate ingestion“. Nippon Shokuhin Kogaku Kaishi 2009; 56: 137-45.
  12. Postlethwaite, A.E.; Seyer, J.M. and Kang, A.H. (1978). “Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 75(2): 871-875.
  13. Proksch E, Schunck M, Zague V, Segger D, Degwert J, Oesser S. “Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis”. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2014; 27(3):113-9.
  14. Proksch E, Segger D, Degwert J, Schunck M, Zague V, Oesser S. “Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2014; 27(1): 47-55.
  15. Schunck M., Zague V., Oesser S., and Proksch E. “Dietary Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides has a Body Mass Index-Dependent Beneficial Effect on Cellulite Morphology” J Med Food 18 (12) 2015, 1340–1348.
  16. Shibuya S, Ozawa Y, Toda T, Watanabe K, Tometsuka C, Ogura T, Koyama Y & Shimizu T (2014) “Collagen peptide and vitamin C additively attenuate age-related skin atrophy in Sod1-deficient mice”, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 78:7, 1212-1220.
  17. Sibilla S, Godfrey M, Brewer S, Budh-Raja A and Genovese L “An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Hydrolysed Collagen as a Nutraceutical on Skin Properties: Scientific Background and Clinical Studies” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 2015, 8, 29-42 29.
  18. Shigemura, Y.; K Iwai, F Morimatsu, T Iwamoto, T Mori, C Oda, T Taira, EY Park, Y Nakamura and K Sato (2009). “Effect of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a food-derived collagen peptide in human blood, on growth of fibroblasts from mouse skin”. J Agric Food Chem 57 (2): 444–449.
  19. Sumida, E., Hirota, A., Kuwaba, K., Kusubata, M., Koyama, Y., Araya, T. Irie, S. and Kasugai, S. 2004. “The effect of oral ingestion of collagen peptide on skin hydration and biochemical data of blood”. Journal of nutritional food, 7(3): 45-52.
  20. Zague, V. “A new view concerning the effects of collagen hydrolysate intake on skin properties” Arch Dermatol Res. 2008 Oct;300(9):479-83.
  21. Zague V, de Freitas V, da Costa Rosa M, de Castro GÁ, Jaeger RG, Machado-Santelli GM. “Collagen hydrolysate intake increases skin collagen expression and suppresses matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity”. J Med Food. 2011 Jun; 14(6):618-24.
  22. Zague, V. et al “Collagen peptides modulate the metabolism of extracellular matrix by human dermal fibroblasts derived from sun-protected and sun-exposed body sites”. Cell Biol Int. 2018 Jan;42(1):95-104.


b. Ferite e ulcere da pressione

  1. Lee SK, Posthauer ME, Dorner B, Redovian V, Maloney MJ. “Pressure ulcer healing with a concentrated, fortified, collagen protein hydrolysate supplement: A randomized controlled trial”. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006;19:92-96.
  2. Nishikimi, A. et al. “Collagen-derived peptides modulate CD4. T-cell differentiation and suppress allergic responses in mice” Immunity, Inflammation and Disease 2018 Jun;6(2):245-255.
  3. Okawa T, Yamaguchi Y, Takada S, Sakai Y, Numata N, Nakamura F, Nagashima Y, Ikezawa Z, Aihara M. “Oral administration of collagen tripeptide improves dryness and pruritus in the acetone-induced dry skin model”. Journal of Dermatological Science 66 (2012) 136–143.
  4. Sugihara F., Inoue N., Sriraam V.T. “The ingestion of bioactive collagen hydrolysate enhanced pressure ulcer healing in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study” January 2015
  5. Tanaka M, Koyama Y, Nomura Y. “Effects of collagen peptide ingestion on UV-B-induced skin damage”. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009, 73 (4): 930-932.
  6. Wang, J. et al., “Oral administration of marine collagen peptides prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) improves wound healing following cesarean section in rats” Food & Nutrition Research 2015, 59: 26411.
  7. Yamanaka H., Okada S., Sanada H., “A multicenter, randomized, controlled study of the use of nutritional supplements containing collagen peptides to facilitate the healing of pressure ulcers” Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism 8 (2017) 51-59.
  8. Zhang, Z. et al., “Oral administration of skin gelatin isolated from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) enhances wound healing in diabetic rats” Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 696-711.

Legamenti e tendini

  1. Minaguchi, J. et al “Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in Achilles tendon”. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Jun;51(3):169-74.
  2. Schunck M., Oesser S. “Specific collagen peptides benefit the biosynthesis of matrix molecules of tendons and ligaments” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10 (Suppl. 1):P23.
  3. Weh L., Petau C. “Change in the Properties of Tissue through the Administration of Gelatine. A Biomechanica Pilot Study”. Extracta orthopaedica. 2001; 4: 12-16.


  1. Gronemann ST, Ribel-Madsen S, Bartels EM, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Bliddal H. 2004. ”Collagen and muscle pathology in fibromyalgia patients”. Rheumatology. 43: 27-31.
  2. Olson GB, Savage S, Olson J. 2000. “The effects of collagen hydrolysate on symptoms of chronic fibromyalgia and tempomandibular joint pain”. Cranio, 18(2): 135-41.
  3. Sprott H, Muller A, Heine H. 1998.“Collagen cross-links in fibromyalgia syndrome”. Z.Rheumatol. 57 Suppl 2:52-5.
  4. Vargas S. “A fibromyalgia pilot study” Mayo 2010.


  1. Hays NP, Kim H, Wells AM, Kajkenova O, Evans WJ. “Effects of whey and fortified collagen hydrolysate protein supplements on nitrogen balance and body composition in older women”. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jun;109(6):1082-7.
  2. Zdzieblik D., Oesser S., Baumstark MW., Gollhofer A., and König D. “Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial” British Journal of Nutrition (2015), 114, 1237–1245.

Salute e nutrizione

  1. Bodwell C. E. “Effect of Collagen on the Nutritional Value of Foods”. In “Collagen as Food”. Pearson M., Dutson T. R., Bailey a. J. Ed. Advances in Meat Research 4. AVI, Van Nostrand Reinold, New York, NY. 1987: 333-350.
  2. Bone H. “Future directions in osteoporosis therapeutics”. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2012 Sep;41(3):655-61.
  3. Clark KL. “Nutritional considerations in joint health”. Clin Sports Med. 2007 Jan;26(1):101-18.
  4. Dybka K, Walczak P. 2009. “Collagen hydrolysates as a new diet supplement” Food Chemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 73, nº 1058.
  5. Eggersgluss B. “Gelatine Hydrolysate and its Health Aspects”. The European Food & Drink Review – Autumn 1999.
  6. Figueres T., Basés E. “Revisión de los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de colágeno hidrolizado sobre la salud osteoarticular y el envejecimiento dérmico” Nutrición Hospitalaria, vol. 32, núm. 1, 2015, pp. 62-66.
  7. Gougeon R. “The metabolic response to two very low energy diets (VLED) of differing amino acid composition during weight reduction”. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:1005-1012.
  8. Koyama Y (2016) “Effects of Collagen Ingestion and their Biological Significance” J Nutr Food Sci 6: 504.
  9. Liu D, Nikoo M, Boran G, Zhou P, Regenstein JM. “Collagen and gelatin” Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2015;6:527-57.
  10. Song H., Li B. “Beneficial Effects of Collagen Hydrolysate: A Review on Recent Developments”. Biomed J Sci &Tech Res 1(2)-2017.


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